The Big Four (plus One) : Providing Focus to Instructional Facilitating
Chapter 7 (page 139) in Instructional Coaching - Jim Knight

Coaching Interventions: 5 Levels

Level 1 -Behavior
Classroom Management
Teach teachers how to clarify and reinforce behavior expectations
Also teachers can learn how to establish the essential elements of a learning community

Level 2 -Content Knowledge
Clear understanding of content and Targets
Help teachers to unpack standards and clearly explain them as learning outcomes for the student.
Are teachers teaching the right content? Do they have a deep, correct understanding of the content?
"Access state standards
*Help teachers translate those standards into lesson plans - using the textbook as a resource and not the dictator of the learning experience.

Level 3 - Direct Instruction
Instructional Basics
Instruction is improved when teachers
a. provide an advance organizer
b. Use simple content enhancements to make content more memorable
c. model thinking processes
d. provide students with numerous opportunities for guided and independent practice
e. provide constructive feedback
f. structure activities so that students can generalize their learning to other settings

Level 4 -Formative Assessment / Assessment Literacy
Assessment Literacy
Teachers need to know if students are learning content and they need to involve their students in the whole business of assessing learning.
Assessment for Learning - Stiggins
Students can become motivated when they know how well they're doing, when they're getting frequent constructive feedback on their progress, and when they know what they still have to do to improve.

Level 5 - Instructional Proficiency / Professional Development based on need
Once teachers have their classrooms under control, are clear on their content and content targets, use instructional basics fluently, and are assessment literate, they than can begin to explore any number of ways to demonstrate instructional proficiency. Coaches can begin to introduce content enhancement routines, discovery learning, Socratic dialogue, story telling, partnership education, cooperative learning approaches, etc.